IBM’s Watson is close to becoming realized in the legal research realm.
According to The Globe and Mail, a class project-turned-startup launched by University of Toronto students that uses IBM’s artificially intelligent Watson computer to do legal research now has backing from Dentons, the world’s largest law firm. Called Ross, the app uses Watson to scour millions of pages of case law and other legal documents in seconds and answer legal questions. Its founders liken it to a smarter version of iPhone’s Siri, but for lawyers, and say it could one day replace some of the grunt research work now done by low-level associates at the world’s top law firms. It is one of several attempts to apply what is called “cognitive computing” to the historically technology-averse legal profession.
And Ross is learning quickly. One of Ross’s developers noted: “It’s early days for sure.” “But what we are seeing is Ross grasping and understanding legal concepts and learning based on the questions and also getting user feedback. … Just like a human, it’s getting its experience in a law firm and being able to learn and get better.”
This will eventually have major ramifications for legal research as we know it. As mentioned in the article, this will likely replace much of the grunt research like finding particular statutes or cases by citation. But Ross is nowhere near being able to creatively use case law to form arguments. And there are many issues to be worked out with Ross storing proprietary information.
While there is no denying that Ross will help augment intelligence, he should be considered more of another tool in a lawyer’s toolbox rather than a replacement. Think of Iron Man’s JARVIS as opposed to The Terminator.
There are many choices when it comes to picking out the right study aid. They come in different formats and cover materials in different ways. If you need a general overview of a topic that explains the law, you might use the Nutshell Series or the Concise Hornbooks. Other series will provide practice questions, such as the Exam Pro Series or Friedman’s Practice Series. There are even a couple that provide both an overview and practice questions, like Glannon Guides and Examples and Explanations.
Dr. Jarmon, from the Office of Academic Success, has created a handy guide to the various study Aid series that discusses different types of study aids. This guide is available in the tutor office, located behind the Research and Information desk in the Law Library. The different series are also available in various formats.
Check out what the Law Library has available!
West Academic Study Aid collection (includes study aids from West Academic Publishing, Foundation Press, and Gilberts), there is even the Gilbert’s Law Dictionary to help out with any legal terminology.
- Acing Series
- Black Letter Outlines
- Career Guides
- Concise Hornbooks
- Exam Pro
- Gilbert Law Summaries
- Law Stories
- Quick Review
- Short and Happy
Print (on Reserve):
- Acing Series
- Black Letter Outlines
- Concepts and Insights
- Crunch Time
- Emanuel’s Law Outlines
- Examples and Explanations
- Gilbert Law Summaries
- Law Stories
- Understanding Law
Audio CDs (On Reserve):
- Law School Legends
- Sum and Substance
Flashcards (On Reserve):
- Law in a Flash
- Texas Law Cards
Don’t forget to take advantage of other resources that are available to you, right here in the Law School. The Office of Academic Success, run by Dr. Amy Jarmon, has many resources available to assist you.
The Law Librarians’ Society of Washington, D.C. is an association established for educational, informational and scientific purposes with a geographical focus on the Washington, D.C. region. Luckily for us, they have compiled a great online Federal legal source book!
The Legislative Source Book contains many pdfs with information on how to research various types of Federal information. There are documents explaining how to located current legislative and regulatory activity, how to locate United States Statutes and Code, as well as an overview of the Congressional Record and Congressional Serial Set. If you want to learn how Federal Laws are drafted they explain it! Most information is for Federal information but there is some information on State Legislatures, laws and regulations as well.
Overall, this is a very comprehensive source on how to find current and historical Federal Legislative information.
Last Thursday, Harvard Law Library and Ravel Law announced a partnership they call “Free the Law.” In short, Harvard is digitizing their entire library of U.S. Case Law, which includes materials going back to pre-revolutionary days, and putting them into Ravel’s system, to be available free of charge.
The project is ambitious, and won’t be done overnight — even scanning half a million pages a week, they’re not expecting to have it fully developed for 2 years. However, it also provides a great opportunity for researchers everywhere to have access to case law. They’ve also agreed to release the full database for bulk use (that is, data mining and so on) within 8 years.
Is this a game-changer? Yes, and no. Google Scholar already has a free database of modern case law (since 1960 for most courts, and going back as far as 1791 for some) that anyone with an internet connection can search as easily as using Google, so from that respect, this really only fills the historical gap. Moreover, those older cases, especially those prior to the Great Depression, are more useful to academics than to practitioners or citizens in general, as they become attenuated from the modern day.
However, the fact that Harvard is partnering with Ravel makes this more interesting to me. Ravel is a relatively new platform that is focused on performing analytics on cases, which they use to connect cases together and highlighting the significant passages of cases. The data from this pool of case law will greatly improve the effectiveness and value of what Ravel provides, and in turn, will add value to the case law in the system. The open availability of the database also means that intrepid data hounds will be able to conduct extensive analysis of U.S. case law that was hampered by the difficulty of finding it all in a single place.
The other caveat I’ll toss out is that the project is only for case law. Most new law in the US is either statutes or administrative regulations, and those appear to be absent from this project (at least, for now). However, I’m still excited to get access to the treasure trove of case law data and to see what the data team at Ravel is able to do with it.
In an earlier post, Ms. Baker artfully noted that the U.S. Supreme Court has taken steps to address link rot. Link rot refers to the removal of or changes to the cited online materials, rendering the court’s citations unusable or unreliable, thereby minimizing the opinion’s precedential value. According to a recent study, 29% of the Internet citations in U.S. Supreme Court opinions between 1996 and 2011 were broken or no longer valid. A similar study of the Supreme Court of Texas found that about 40% of the Court’s Internet citations used during 1998 to 2011 no longer worked.
The U.S. Supreme Court has created a webpage with links to PDF images that capture the cited reference as it appeared at the time of citation. This is an acceptable method of addressing the link rot issue. Unfortunately, at this time, the Supreme Court of Texas has not taken equivalent measures to safeguard against link rot in its opinions.
Tax Notes is the Law Library’s newest database. It is a current awareness and tax research database. This product will help you stay on top of current tax news. It is easy and quick to sign-up. Here are the instructions*:
Please go to http://www.taxnotes.com to sign on to the new site. For the initial sign-in, you need to be within your company’s/university’s IP range.
Please follow these steps:
- Please go to http://www.taxnotes.com, and click SIGN IN at the top right.
- In the username field, please enter your Texas Tech University e-mail address. Click Next.
- On the next screen, please click on the blue “Register Here” link.
- You’ll be taken to a Profile page. Enter your name and Texas Tech University e-mail address.
- Choose a password and enter it.
- When you’ve finished the Profile, click SAVE CHANGES.
- You’ll go to the Tax Notes webpage, where you can sign in with your username Texas Tech University and the password you chose.
If you have any problems signing up or setting preferences, please contact Marin Dell (firstname.lastname@example.org) for assistance.
*[NOTE: The user must be a Texas Tech University faculty, student or staff to access.]
The Law Library has been an integral part of the Law School since 1967. This particular picture from before the Law Library is opened, is of law librarian U.V. Jones showing Dean Richard B. Amandes some of the new books that are going to be added to the collection.
Even today, the Law Library continues to be a valuable resource helping our faculty, students, practitioners and public patrons with the help of our vast collection of legal resources and of course, our librarians!
(original post from Texas Tech tumblr page http://longlivethematadors.tumblr.com/post/131950176873/new-law-library)